Tuesday, August 17, 2010


Generic Name: gentamicin (gen tah MY sin)
Brand Names: Garamycin

Gentamicin is an antibiotic particularly effective in treating severe infection cause by a wide variety of gram negative bacteria. It belongs to a class of drugs known as aminoglycoside antibiotics.

Destroys gram-negative bacteria by irreversibly binding to subunit of bacterial ribosomes and inhibiting protein synthesis, the amino acid incorporation into the growing protein chain is blocked by the drug, lowering the protein manufactured resulting in misreading of genetic code and separation of ribosomes from messenger RNA leading to incorrect production of proteins.

Example of gram negative:
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Proteus, Klebsiella, Serratia, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, or Staphylococcus species

Inspite of the effectiveness of the drug, increasig concern was raised about its toxicity particularly its effect in the kidney.


Administration is via: intravenous and intravascular
% bound to protein: < 10 %
Time to reach the peak plasma level: 1-1.5 hr (intramuscular) and 30 mins.(intravenous)
Plasma half life: 2 hours
Excretion in urine: 90% parent drug
Active metabolites: no
Therapeutic range (µg/ml): 4-8 (peak)
Toxic range (µg/ml): > 12 (peak), >2(trough)


RIA or enzyme - linked immuno assay

>Sample collection requires careful attention to number of parameters.
>It should not be collected using heparin as an anticoagulant because it provides undefined interference with the assay.
>Peak level are obtained at the appropriate time determined by the administration protocol.
>trough sample should be collected 30 mins. Or less prior to the next dose
>both peak and trough should be obtained for most efficient monitoring of aminoglycoside.


Tuesday, July 13, 2010

Catecholamines test

Catecholamines are hormones produced by the adrenal glands, which are found on top of the kidneys. They are released into the blood during times of physical or emotional stress.

The major catecholamines are dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine (which used to be called adrenalin).

This test is used to diagnose or rule out a pheochromocytoma or neuroblastoma. It may also be done in patients with those conditions to determine if treatment is working

How the Test Is Performed

Catecholamines are more often measured with a urine test than with this blood test.

Blood is drawn from a vein, usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. The puncture site is cleaned with antiseptic. An elastic band is placed around the upper arm to apply pressure and cause the vein to swell with blood.

A needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. During the procedure, the band is removed to restore circulation. Once the blood has been collected, the needle is removed, and the puncture site is covered to stop any bleeding.

Normal Values

Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories.

Epinephrine: 20 ng/100 mL (ng/mL = nanograms per milliliter)

Norepinephrine: 60 ng/100 mL


Tuesday, July 6, 2010


Irregularity of monthly period is a common problem of most of the woman’s. We often say to ourselves that how do we know when we are fertile? Its about time to visit your gynecologist.

Provera 10mg tablets (medroxyprogesterone acetate)
Main use: disorders of the menstrual cycle
Active ingredient: medroxyprogesterone acetate

How does it work?
Provera 2.5mg, 5mg and 10mg tablets contain the active ingredient medroxyprogesterone acetate, which is a synthetic form of the naturally occurring female sex hormone, progesterone. It is used to treat various disorders of the menstrual cycle.

A woman's menstrual cycle is a complex process that is controlled by different hormones. The blood levels of these hormones change throughout the menstrual cycle, causing an egg to be released from the ovaries (ovulation), preparation of the womb lining for a possible pregnancy and shedding of the womb lining each month if pregnancy doesn't occur (a menstrual period). There are plenty of places that this complex process can go wrong.

If your periods are irregular or have stopped completely and your doctor can find no obvious cause, it may be that something has upset your natural hormone levels. Medroxyprogesterone can help to restore your natural hormone levels, because it mimics the effects of your natural progesterone.

What is it used for?
•Dysfunctional menstrual bleeding, for example heavy, painful, irregular or very frequent periods.
•Menstrual periods those have stopped (secondary amenorrhea).
•Mild to moderate endometriosis.

Side effects
•Breast tenderness.
•Weight gain.
•Difficulty sleeping (insomnia).

There are many factors which can interfere with the regularity of the menstrual periods. Some of the important factors are:

A poor diet and extreme weight loss or gain can affect the hormonal levels in the body. A woman with bulimia (eats a lot) and anorexia (loss of appetite) often complains of irregular or no menstrual periods.

Intense or heavy exercise, besides weakening the body, also causes the menstrual cycle to be irregular. This is well documented in athletes and sportswomen who often have problems with their menstrual flow.

•Hormonal birth control
Many times, birth control pills and irregular periods of menstrual cycle go hand in hand. A woman’s body takes a while to adjust to the newer levels of hormones delivered by the hormonal birth control pills hence the irregular menses.

A woman’s body produces various levels of hormones and certain new hormones when she becomes pregnant. Once, pregnancy is achieved, the menstrual flow stops and the cycle disappears. This is considered as physiological, and is said to be normal and a major indication of conception. Even after the baby’s birth, there may be irregularity in the menstrual cycle and is considered normal.

Latest researchers now fully agree that stress is one of the major factors for irregular menstruation. If a woman is worried, stressed out, anxious or depressed, she may miss the menstrual flow or may end up with profuse bleeding.


Tuesday, May 25, 2010

Adrenal medulla and the Hormones secreted


I was standing in front of the crowd. I was on a stage, trembling while holding the microphone. I can hear my palpitations louder than the yell of the audience. I wanted to start my speech. I decided to but as I tried to speak, my tongue moves back and no voice is produced. My thoughts are very vague now. The only thought that is clear is a query to me, should I go or pursue this delivery?

Perhaps most of us had experienced being stocked in a situation where we are uncomfortable and stressed of it. We wanted to seek help. We even wanted to call for a time out “Hey, can I just continue tomorrow? I’m a little nervous right now.” But no we couldn’t just say that. We can’t always leave the crowd when the spotlight is shone upon us. The resort that has been always chosen is to continue the presentation. Curtains up and red carpet rolls. One, two, three. .

The good thing for stressing situation is we do not have to fight alone. We have armor inside us ---- our adrenaline system. Our adrenaline system is responsible for our fight or flight response. The fight or flight response is our body's primary, automatic, innate response that prepares the body to "fight" or "flee" from apparent attack, stress, harm or threat to our endurance. It is composed primarily of the adrenal medulla. The adrenal medulla is innervated by the neurons of the sympathetic nervous system or otherwise known as the sympathetic preganglionic neurons. The adrenal medulla synthesizes two important hormones in the body which are epinephrine and norepinephrine.

Epinephrine is secreted in cases of low blood glucose level. Norepinephrine secreted by the adrenal gland acts to narrow blood vessels and raise blood pressure. However, release of these hormomes is also stimulated when we experience excessive stress—whether from internal worry or external circumstance. This is where our fight or flight response occurs.

Dramatic changes occur brought by series of nerve cell firing and chemical release in the body. The grasp for air boosts thus respiratory rate increases. To supply body energy and fuel for escaping or fighting, blood is thrust away from our digestive tract and directed into our muscles and limbs. The pupils dilate and sight sharpens. Our alertness intensifies. Our impulses accelerate. We least likely feel pain. We become ready or geared up—physically and psychologically—for fight or flight.

Our body is indeed the best example for organization. We really are magnificent creatures made by God. He never brought us here unprotected. On the other hand, we were geared enough to face a fight or fly if we can’t do anything about it. We are like superman where we can do unexplainable things when under stress with our adrenal gland. So what’s the dash, if we have adrenaline rush?



Wednesday, May 12, 2010

Endocrinology, Toxicology, and Drug testing


When I heard the word endocrinology first thing came up to my mind are hormones.

Endocrinology is concerned with the study of the chemistry, and physiological function of hormones and with the cells of the endocrine glands and tissues that secrete them that work together with the nervous system to coordinate functions of all the body system.

When we say hormones basically, hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work slowly, over time, and affect many different processes.

Functions of Hormones

  1. Help Regulate:
  • chemical composition & volume of internal environment
  • metabolism and energy balance
  • contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle fibers
  • glandular secretions
  • some immune system activities
2. Control growth and development

3. Regulate operation of reproductive system


The study of the adverse effects of a toxicant on living organisms meaning to say the effects of the poisons, these poisonous substances is produced by plants, animals or bacteria.

The household products implicated most poisonings are cleaning solutions, fuels, medicines, and other material such as cosmetics and paints.

Toxicologists is the person who work to develop a mechanistic understanding of how chemicals affect living systems.

Swiss physician Paracelsus (1493-1541) "The Father of Modern Toxicology. He said "all substances are poisons: there is none which is not a poison. the right dose differentiates a poison from a remedy."

Drug testing

Drug testing is being done for many purposes its a major requirements like when you are seeking for an employment, those you are athletics etc.

There are many different procedures to analyze and perform the drug test. drug testing is process of anlysing biological specimen in order for use to determine the absence or presence of a certain metabolites that is not supposed to be taken which are considered illegal that affect our health. examples are cocaine, ectasy, and shabu.

These biological specimens have different specific time seen in the fluid being tested. Examples are saliva, urine, sweat, hair and blood.